Introduction and Promotion of Hi- Tech Farm Mechanization Technologies

Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute (AMRI) is only one research institute for farm mechanization in Punjab. The farmers and manufacturers of the Punjab are being guided and motivated for mechanization by the institute. The conventional and manual operations are tedious and cost intensive. In order to increase the pace of mechanization, the proposed project has been launched in the province. The technologies will also help the farmers to overcome the labor shortage problems for various operations. There is a dire need to mechanize such operations which are still either manual or inefficient farm machinery is being used. The proposed project carries immense importance and is dire need of the growers of Sugarcane, Cotton, Vegetables and Fodder.

Objectives

The overall objective of the project is to boost up the agriculture production and alleviate labor drudgery through Introduction and Promotion of Hi_Tech Farm Mechanization Technologies.  
The specific objectives are;
  • To demonstrate the modern technologies to end users for their larger scale introduction and promotion.
  • To test and evaluate the performance of imported machines according to local conditions
  • To develop and indigenize imported machines by reverse engineering through collaboration of local manufactures of agricultural implements.

Sugarcane Loader: 

After harvesting of the sugarcane it should be transported to the sugar industries for its further processing. One of the major problems in transportation of sugarcane is its loading on vehicles. In Pakistan, sugarcane is loaded manually but over the years the problems are being faced regarding un-availability of labor, increased labor costs, risk of human injury and time of loading. Therefore, steps should be taken to mechanize this component in Pakistan. Mechanical loading can be done by different methods. Under the proposed project, lift type loader which consist of a small engine, conveyor, pulley and a platform will be imported and locally developed.

 

Sugarcane Crusher:

Sugarcane is chiefly used for making sugar and Gur. Jiggery or gur is still produced in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and many other countries. Gur is made by extracting juice from sugarcane. A large number of cane growers in Pakistan have started producing gur instead of waiting for crushing season of sugar mills. Now a days traditional sugarcane crusher are being used at farm level having less juice recovery as compared to the crushers of sugarcane mills. Resultantly it is causing loss of farmer in term of gur production. Therefore, it is the need of the time to import and develop multi series roller sugarcane crusher with efficient juice recovery.

   

Sugarcane Bud Cutter:

In Pakistan mostly cane pieces are used for sowing purposes resulted in very high seed rate and loss of a large quantity of sugarcane. In fact cane plant is germinated only from bud present on the pieces of sugarcane. So there is a need of such a machine which is used to cut only that part of cane on which bud is present. After bud cutting nursery of sugarcane is planted in controlled conditions and after germination of nursery it is transplanted in fields. Plant transplanted in this way is healthier as compared to the plant which is planted by using traditional methods. At present time such a machine is not available in local market, so in the proposed project sugarcane bud cutting machine will be imported and developed locally through reverse engineering.

 

Cotton Sticks Shredder:

After cotton piking a lot of cotton sticks remain in the field which create a challenging situation for the farmers. Manual handling of cotton sticks require huge labor which is not economically suitable and require a lot of time which cause late sowing of next (especially wheat) crop, resulted reduction in the yield of next crop. So in view of above mentioned problems there is a dire need of a Tractor Operated Cotton sticks shredder. But locally this machine is not available for handling of cotton sticks in field. So there is a need to import such a machine from foreign country and development of the machine according to local conditions.

   

Garlic Planter:

In Pakistan mostly the garlic cloves are planted manually that is a labourous and time consuming job. With manual planting clove – clove and line – line distance maintaining is relatively difficult. In peak season, availability of labour, efficiency of labour and limited acrage/day provides sufficient grounds to adopt such a technology to optimize the production. To meet the requirement, garlic planter (tractor mounted/ walk behind)  will be imported that can controll plant population through R*R and P*P distance  maintaining. Reverse engineering of the same planter will be carried out with the collebration of private manufecturers of agricultural implements to ensure its lowcost availability for making the gap narrow in yield and  production of garlic.

   

Garlic Harvester

In Pakistan mostly the garlic bulbs are harvested manually that is a labourous and time consuming job, requiring high labor and labor cost. The garlic harvester removes the bulbs of garlic from the soil, eliminating part of the soil, maintaining the leaves for greater preservation and grouping the harvest together to make collection easier. To meet the requirement, garlic harvester (tractor mounted/ walk behind)  will be imported that can harvest garlic easily and timely. Reverse engineering of the same harvester will be carried out with the collebration of private manufecturers of agricultural implements to ensure its low cost availability to overcome the problems of labor.

 

Onion Harvester

Harvesting is the most important stage of the cultivation process. Harvesting of onion is done manually in Pakistan. Flat, narrow-bladed shovels are used to loosen the ground beside onion and lift plant by hand by labors. Labor has higher cost (511 Rupees per capita) and availability (of workers) sometimes is tight. Harvesting manually has a limited potential and is time consuming and expensive.  Harvesting alone, if performed manually, accounts for more than 50% of total production costs.  But, with the adoption of onion harvester, harvesting can become cheaper and easier. Onion harvesting not only saves the time but also reduces the quantity of waste to a great extent. Mechanized harvesting results in work productivity 5 to 6 times higher than that of manual operations. The machines automatically pull the individual plants from the ground, remove soil, and cut away excess root material. At present, no machinery is available in the field for proper harvesting of onion. There is a dire need to mechanize such operations which are still either manual or inefficient.

   

Hay Baler:

Hay is grass, legumes or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing livestock such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. A baler is tractor operated equipment and is used to compress a cut and raked crop (such as hay, cotton and straw) into compact bales that are easy to handle, transport and store. It produces cylinder-shaped "round" or "rolled" bales. Grass is rolled up inside the baler using rubberized belts, fixed rollers, or a combination of the two. When the bale reaches a predetermined size, either netting or twine is wrapped around it to hold its shape. AMRI intends to import a baler to test under the local conditions so that it can be developed at the local level.

 

Tedder-Rakes:

A tedder-rake (also called hay tedder) is a machine used in haymaking. It is used after cutting and before windrowing, and uses moving forks to aerate the hay and thus speed up the process of hay-making. The use of a tedder allows the hay to dry better, which results in improved aroma and color. The rake is used to bundle together the dried hay so that it can be collected in the form of bales. Development of tedder-rake is of great importance to agriculture, since it saves labor and thus money. It also resulted in greater economy, since cut grass could be turned into hay the same day even if it had become wet and before its nutritional value could be reduced by repeated soaking from rain. Especially in humid areas the invention of the tedder-rake added greatly to improved hay production from such crops as alfalfa[ and clover, and allowed for haying while the grass was still green which produced hay of much higher value. Raking and Tedding plays a vital role in the grass harvesting process. Timing is of the essence for optimum quality. Raking or Tedding with the hay-making machine offers maximum flexibility during the haymaking process. Taking advantage of the perfect ground following capabilities, adjustable tines and crop deflectors ensures that the hay-making machine provides maximum flexibility for a minimum investment. AMRI intends to import this machine and to test under the local conditions so that it can be developed at the local level

 

Multi Crop Drill:

These drills can easily be adjusted to seed into major tillage practices - Conventional Till, Mulch or Minimum Till, and No-Till. These drills are Ideal for sowing of different rabi and kharif crops. These drills can also be used for direct sowing of different crops especially rice. There is a dire need to import such drill and develop it locally through reverse engineering.

 

Precision Sprayer:

Control of application rate of chemicals is a concept that is fundamental to site-specific management of crop production. The ability to vary application rates of crop chemicals based on control maps or sensor input holds the potential to improve both agronomic and environmental aspects of crop production. In the area of pest management, effective pest control has traditionally been the primary concern. With the recent increase in environmental awareness, control of pesticide placement (i.e., hit the target, prevent drift) has gained increasing importance. Ideally, technologies that can produce site-specific application should help to improve pesticide placement. Pressure-based variable-rate spraying systems that use standard nozzles can produce excessive spray drift when operated in conditions in which high system pressures are necessary. We have need of chemical application system which will address both application rate control and drift control with no reduction in overall system performance. The sprayers available in Pakistan have high losses and have no precision so that there is dire need to import precision sprayers and develop these sprayers according to local conditions.

   

Tractor Rear Mounted Fodder Cutter:

With the help of tractor mounted fodder cutter farmers can easily cut fodder with less labor and in a short period of time. Only a tractor operator is required to operate this machine. After operation fodder can be easily collected from the field for its further use. This machine will be purchased under the project “Improvement in Breeding and Seed Production System of Fodder Crops” and will be provided to AMRI for its local development through reverse engineering. 

   

Walk Behind Fodder Harvester:

Walk after fodder cutter will be helpful for small farmers to cut fodder with less labor and in a short period of time. After operation of this machine fodder can be easily collected from the field for its further use. This machine will be purchased under the project “Improvement in Breeding and Seed Production System of Fodder Crops” and will be provided to AMRI for its local development through reverse engineering.